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Kidney Disease

About Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease refers to the gradual loss of kidney function. Through your urine, your kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of these fluids and waste can build up in the body, causing a number of complications.

You may exhibit very few signs or symptoms in the earlier stages. Your disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired.

Treatment for kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, typically by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant.


Signs and symptoms of kidney disease are often nonspecific, meaning they can also be caused by other illnesses. Because your kidneys are highly adaptable and able to compensate for lost function, signs and symptoms may not appear until irreversible damage has occurred. Signs and symptoms of kidney disease develop over time if kidney damage progresses slowly. These may include:

  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Appetite loss
  • Fatigue
  • Problems sleeping
  • Changes in urination frequency and amount
  • Swelling of feet and ankles
  • Persistent itching
  • Chest pain, if fluid builds up around the lining of the heart
  • Shortness of breath, if fluid builds up in the lungs
  • Difficult-to-control hypertension


Factors and lifestyles that may increase your risk of developing kidney disease may include:

  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Smoking
  • Abnormal kidney structure

Types of Kidney Disease

There are various forms of kidney disease, some more severe than others. Here are some examples of specific kidney disease conditions:

  • Abderhalden–Kaufmann–Lignac syndrome
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
  • Alabama rot
  • Alport syndrome
  • Analgesic nephropathy
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  • Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy
  • Bardoxolone methyl
  • Benign nephrosclerosis
  • Bright’s disease
  • Cardiorenal syndrome
  • CFHR5 nephropathy
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder
  • Congenital nephrotic syndrome
  • Conorenal syndrome
  • Contrast-induced nephropathy
  • Cystic kidney disease
  • Dent’s disease
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Diffuse proliferative nephritis
  • Distal renal tubular acidosis
  • Diuresis
  • EAST syndrome
  • End Stage Renal Disease Program
  • Epithelial–mesenchymal transition
  • Fanconi syndrome
  • Fechtner syndrome
  • Focal proliferative nephritis
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • Fraley syndrome
  • Galloway Mowat syndrome
  • Gitelman syndrome
  • Glomerulocystic kidney disease
  • Glomerulopathy
  • Glomerulosclerosis
  • Goldblatt kidney
  • Goodpasture syndrome
  • High anion gap metabolic acidosis
  • HIV-associated nephropathy
  • Horseshoe kidney
  • Hydronephrosis
  • Hypertensive kidney disease
  • IgA nephropathy
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Juvenile nephronophthisis
  • Kidney cancer
  • Kidney disease
  • Kidney stone disease
  • Lightwood–Albright syndrome
  • Lupus nephritis
  • Malarial nephropathy
  • Medullary cystic kidney disease
  • Medullary sponge kidney
  • Membranous glomerulonephritis
  • Mesoamerican nephropathy
  • Milk-alkali syndrome
  • Minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis
  • Multicystic dysplastic kidney
  • Nephritis
  • Nephrocalcinosis
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
  • Nephromegaly
  • Nephroptosis
  • Nephrosis
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Nutcracker syndrome
  • Papillorenal syndrome
  • Phosphate nephropathy
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Primary hyperoxaluria
  • Proximal renal tubular acidosis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Pyonephrosis
  • Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
  • Renal agenesis
  • Renal angina
  • Renal artery stenosis
  • Renal cyst
  • Renal ischemia
  • Renal osteodystrophy
  • Renal papillary necrosis
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Renal vein thrombosis
  • Reninoma
  • Secondary hypertension
  • Serpentine fibula-polycystic kidney syndrome
  • Shunt nephritis
  • Sickle cell nephropathy
  • Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae
  • Thin basement membrane disease
  • Transplant glomerulopathy
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis
  • Tubulopathy
  • Uremia
  • Uremic frost
  • Wunderlich syndrome

Kidney Disease

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